We shall first consider the teachings of the Holy Book relating to the first stage of the threefold reformation - physical, moral and spiritual conditions of man - which we have referred to in the foregoing pages.
Laws are laid down to guide the actions of daily life, and all that is necessary to make the savage a social being is included therein. This is the easiest stage in man's civilization and it teaches that particular aspect of morals which we term 'adab (manners).
We shall first examine the question of marriage as inculcated in the Holy Quran:
There is no harm in your marrying the orphan girls who are your wards, but if you are apprehensive that, as they have no guardian beside yourselves, you may be sometimes tempted to deal with them unjustly, then marry of other women who have guardians: two, three or four, provided you can act equitably towards them in all respects.
There was a Custom among some ignorant Arabs that. if children were not born to a ma's, his wife would secretly go to another man for getting issues. It is for the extirpation of this savage custom that these words have been used.
The practice of burying female infants was universal in the pre-Islamic period. And the Holy Quran forbids this atrocious act in the following unambiguous words
Food, Alcohol, Gambling
Like beasts, the Arabs did not hesitate to devour carcasses. Their thirst for wine was excessive, and gambling was not unknown. It is to rectify such low practices that the following verses were revealed:
Khinzir (swine), mentioned in this verse, is one of those things which the Muslims have been forbidden to eat. The very name of this foul animal contains an allusion to the prohibition of its flesh. It is a combination of khinz and ar, the first part meaning "very foul" and the second "I see". This word literally means "I see it very foul". The name which God gave this animal in the beginning, therefore, points to its foulness. It is yet more interesting to note that in Hindi this animal is known by the name of su'ar which is composed of two words su and 'ar the latter part being identical with the Arabic word and the former being the exact equivalent of the first part of the Arabic form. The Hindi word thus means exactly site same as the Arabic. The Arabic origin of a Hindi word it not surprising for, as shown in my book Mina al-Rahman, Arabic is the mother of all languages and its words are frequently met with in all languages. Su'ar is, therefore, of Arabic ethnology.
In Hindi, this animal it also known as bad, meaning "bad" or "foul", which is probably a translation of the original Arabic word. It appears that at an early age in the world's history, when separation had taken place, the word su'ar which is the exact equivalent of, and synonymous with the still-prevalent Arabic form Khinzir, was used to signify the name of this animal, and it has kept the original form after a lapse of thousands of years. The Sanskrit form of the word may have changed a little, but there can be no doubt that the root is Arabic, for it supplies the reason for which the name was given, and the word Khinzir attests to the truth of the same view.
As to the applicability of this sense of the word to the habits of this animal, there can be no question. Everybody knows that it is extremely ugly and lives upon filth and is, moreover, the most shameless of all creatures. The reason of its prohibition is thus evident. Taken as food its foul flesh will have an injurious effect upon the body as well as the soul, for we have shown above that food affects the whole external and internal system of man. It may be recalled that pre-Islamic physicians of the Greek school also held that the flesh of this animal was injurious.
On similar grounds, the Quran has prohibited the flesh of animals that die a natural death, for it also affects both physical health and morals. Animals, strangled or killed by a blow, are treated like those that die a natural death.
With regard to social behavior, the Quran teaches us the following:
That is, do not jump over the walls, nor enter by the back-door.
That is, do not indulge in idle talk, but speak rightly when occasion requires it.
The Holy Quran teaches us to keep our body clean, and to wash ourselves in case we are under an obligation:
This is the primary step which the Quran has taken for the reformation of man and those are the rules by means of which it has, in the past, raised, and claims now to raise, savages to the status of social beings. These teachings simply contain rules of good conduct and social relations. So far it does not inculcate teachings containing high morals which are intended to make men morally great. It was necessary that this step should have first been taken for people whose regeneration was the primary object of our Prophet's appearance and who were actually living in a state of savagery far surpassing that of other peoples. They observed no law which could differentiate them from savages. It was, therefore, necessary that the Holy Book should have first of all taught them the rules of society.