Physical Condition


''And those who strive hard for Us We shall certainly guide them in Our ways. And Allah is surely with the doers of good" - (29:69.)

We shall first consider the teachings of the Holy Book relating to the first stage of the threefold reformation - physical, moral and spiritual conditions of man - which we have referred to in the foregoing pages.


Laws are laid down to guide the actions of daily life, and all that is necessary to make the savage a social being is included therein. This is the easiest stage in man's civilization and it teaches that particular aspect of morals which we term 'adab (manners).



We shall first examine the question of marriage as inculcated in the Holy Quran:

"(O you who believe) and marry not (those) women whom your fathers married, except what has already passed (of that nature)"- (4:22.)

"Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your paternal and maternal aunts, and brother's daughters and sister's daughters, and your mothers that have suckled you, and your foster-sisters, and mothers-in-law, and your step-daughters who are in your guardianship (born) of your wives to whom you have gone in - but if you have not gone in to them, there is no blame on you -and the wives of your sons who are of your own loins and that you should have two sisters together, except what has passed. . ." - (4 : 23.)

"And if you fear that you cannot do justice to orphans, marry such women as seem good to you, two, or three, or four; but if you fear that you will not do justice, then (marry) only one or that which your right hands possess ''- (14:3)

There is no harm in your marrying the orphan girls who are your wards, but if you are apprehensive that, as they have no guardian beside yourselves, you may be sometimes tempted to deal with them unjustly, then marry of other women who have guardians: two, three or four, provided you can act equitably towards them in all respects.

"This day (all) good things are made lawful for you. And the food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. And so are the chaste from among the believing women and the chaste from among those who have been given the Book before you, when you give them their dowries, taking (them) in marriage, not fornicating nor taking them for paramours in secret..."- (5:5)

There was a Custom among some ignorant Arabs that. if children were not born to a ma's, his wife would secretly go to another man for getting issues. It is for the extirpation of this savage custom that these words have been used.

"And give women (whom you take in marriage) their dowries as a free gift . . . " - (4 : 4.)

"O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against (their) will . . . "- (4:19.)



The practice of burying female infants was universal in the pre-Islamic period. And the Holy Quran forbids this atrocious act in the following unambiguous words

"And slay not your children . . ." - (6:152.)

"And kill not your people. . . " - (4: 29.)


Food, Alcohol, Gambling

Like beasts, the Arabs did not hesitate to devour carcasses. Their thirst for wine was excessive, and gambling was not unknown. It is to rectify such low practices that the following verses were revealed:

"Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine and that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked, and the strangled (animal), and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall, and that killed by goring with the horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten except what you slaughter; and that which is sacrificed on stones set up (for idols) . .'' - (5 : 3.)

Khinzir (swine), mentioned in this verse, is one of those things which the Muslims have been forbidden to eat. The very name of this foul animal contains an allusion to the prohibition of its flesh. It is a combination of khinz and ar, the first part meaning "very foul" and the second "I see". This word literally means "I see it very foul". The name which God gave this animal in the beginning, therefore, points to its foulness. It is yet more interesting to note that in Hindi this animal is known by the name of su'ar which is composed of two words su and 'ar the latter part being identical with the Arabic word and the former being the exact equivalent of the first part of the Arabic form. The Hindi word thus means exactly site same as the Arabic. The Arabic origin of a Hindi word it not surprising for, as shown in my book Mina al-Rahman, Arabic is the mother of all languages and its words are frequently met with in all languages. Su'ar is, therefore, of Arabic ethnology.

In Hindi, this animal it also known as bad, meaning "bad" or "foul", which is probably a translation of the original Arabic word. It appears that at an early age in the world's history, when separation had taken place, the word su'ar which is the exact equivalent of, and synonymous with the still-prevalent Arabic form Khinzir, was used to signify the name of this animal, and it has kept the original form after a lapse of thousands of years. The Sanskrit form of the word may have changed a little, but there can be no doubt that the root is Arabic, for it supplies the reason for which the name was given, and the word Khinzir attests to the truth of the same view.

As to the applicability of this sense of the word to the habits of this animal, there can be no question. Everybody knows that it is extremely ugly and lives upon filth and is, moreover, the most shameless of all creatures. The reason of its prohibition is thus evident. Taken as food its foul flesh will have an injurious effect upon the body as well as the soul, for we have shown above that food affects the whole external and internal system of man. It may be recalled that pre-Islamic physicians of the Greek school also held that the flesh of this animal was injurious.

On similar grounds, the Quran has prohibited the flesh of animals that die a natural death, for it also affects both physical health and morals. Animals, strangled or killed by a blow, are treated like those that die a natural death.

"Eat and drink but be not prodigal"- (7:31.)

"They ask thee (the Prophet Muhammad) as to what is allowed to them. Say: The good things ate allowed to you..." - (5: 4.)

"Intoxicants and games of chance and (sacrificing to) stones set up and (dividing by) arrows are only an uncleanness, the devil's work so shun it that you may succeed" - (5 : 90.)

"And make provision for yourselves, the best provision being to keep one's duty . . ." - (2:197)

"In their wealth there was a due share for the beggar and for one who is denied good" -(51:19.)



With regard to social behavior, the Quran teaches us the following:

"(O you who believe) enter not houses other than your own houses, until you have asked permission and saluted their inmates. This is better for you that you may be mindful. But if you find no one therein, enter them not, until permission is given to you; and if it is said to you, Go back, then go back; this is purer for you" - (24: 27-28.)

"And go into the houses by their doors" - (2 :189.)

That is, do not jump over the walls, nor enter by the back-door.

"(O you who believe, keep your duty to Allah and) speak straight words" - (33:70.)

That is, do not indulge in idle talk, but speak rightly when occasion requires it.

"And pursue the right course in thy going about and lower thy voice . . ." - (31: 19.)

"And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet with one better than it, or return it .."- (4:86.)

"(O you who believe) when it is said to you, make room in assemblies, make room. Allah will give you ample (hereafter). And when it is said, Rise up, rise up . . ." - (58:11.)



The Holy Quran teaches us to keep our body clean, and to wash ourselves in case we are under an obligation:

"(O you who believe) if you are under an obligation, then wash (yourselves) . . ." - (5: 6.)

"And thy garments do purify, and (every kind of) uncleanness do shun . . ." - (74: 4-5.)

This is the primary step which the Quran has taken for the reformation of man and those are the rules by means of which it has, in the past, raised, and claims now to raise, savages to the status of social beings. These teachings simply contain rules of good conduct and social relations. So far it does not inculcate teachings containing high morals which are intended to make men morally great. It was necessary that this step should have first been taken for people whose regeneration was the primary object of our Prophet's appearance and who were actually living in a state of savagery far surpassing that of other peoples. They observed no law which could differentiate them from savages. It was, therefore, necessary that the Holy Book should have first of all taught them the rules of society.